Aperture - The Aperture setting on a camera allows you to control how much light is let into the camera. A small aperture will mean a large hole letting in light, and a large aperture will mean a small hole letting in light. It is to be adjusted based on the lighting conditions.
Shutter speed - Shutter speed is the amount of time the cameras shutter is open. A low shutter speed like 1/800 will shoot things without a lot less motion blur if any, but will let in less light. The converse is also true in that a low shutter speed like 1/3 will provide you with a ton of light, but things with blur.
Depth of Field -The depth of field is the distance that objects within a photo will appear sharp. A large depth of field is called "deep focus" while a small depth of field is "shallow focus".
Focus - The part of the photo that's sharp and in focus. focus helps gives the viewer see what the main focus of the image is.
Blur - When motion causes streaking in a still images, that's motion blur. Blur will give a sense of motion, allowing the viewer to see what in the photo was moving when the photo was taken.
ISO - The ISO is a measurement of the sensitivity of the image sensor in the camera, a high ISO like 3200 will make an image grainy, but bright and sensitive to light, where as an ISO of 100 will not be grainy, but won't be very light sensitive.